A piston pump is a pumping unit in which a displacer fo […]
A piston pump is a pumping unit in which a displacer forces liquid away from a static working chamber. The piston pump working chamber is an enclosed space that is in communication with the pump inlet/outlet.
The piston pump energizes the pumped fluid to convert it from mechanical motor power, ie, the pump type provides energy to the pumping medium to overcome the resistance, inertia and static height in the pipeline.
There are various piston pump classifications that show the structural characteristics of the piston pumps, their performance characteristics, compatible working fluids, working device speeds and resulting working pressures.
A wide range of piston pumps
The piston pump can have both manual and mechanical drive. There are two types of pumps with mechanical drives:
A drive pump with a piston is driven by an electric motor, and the motor connecting rod assembly is separately arranged and connected to the pump through a transmission;
The direct acting pump directly reciprocates the piston from the piston of the non-cranked steam engine through a pump rod, which is a gas delivery system having a pumping unit.
By the type of working device that moves the liquid, the piston pump can be:
Piston type (the piston is disc-shaped);
Plunger type (the piston is cylindrical);
Membrane type (working fluid is separated from the piston by a special membrane, and the cylinder contains oil/emulsion). These pumps are used to pump liquids containing various admixtures, chemically corrosive liquids, and mortars. The membrane can be activated by a simple lever. The studio is equipped with two pipes, one for the suction pipe and the other for the exhaust pipe. The rod moves back and forth and is connected to the membrane. The membrane pump is used as part of a car engine as a fuel pump.
By action, the piston pump can be:
Single acting piston pump;
Double acting piston pump. These pumps pump liquid more evenly than single and differential pumps because they are equipped with two working chambers on either side of the cylinder, which are fitted with an exhaust valve and an inspiratory valve. For this reason, the piston forces the liquid twice while the crankshaft makes one revolution. The pressure dome connected to the pipe significantly reduces the pumping liquid pulsation;
Differential plunger pump. These are two-way pumps with two working chambers: one with no valves and the other with a suction valve and a service valve. Each time the shaft rotates, the pump pump is pumped twice; as a result, the liquid delivery becomes very uniform.
Piston pumps are classified by cylinder position (horizontal and vertical) and number of cylinders (pumps with one, two, three or more cylinders).
Depending on the number of pistons, the pump is classified as a pump with one, two or more pistons. In addition, depending on the amount of emissions, the pump is divided into large pistons (more than 150 mm in diameter), medium pistons (50 mm to 50 mm in diameter) and small pistons (less than 50 mm in diameter). 50 mm). Pumps are divided into three types by operating component speeds: slow piston pumps (40 to 80 double strokes per minute), medium speed piston pumps (50 to 80) and high speed piston pumps (150 to 350).
This type of pump is used to move cold water (general pumps), hot water (heat pump), acid treatment (acid pump) or mud solution (mud pump).
Depending on the operating pressure level, the pump is divided into pumps that produce high pressure, medium pressure and low pressure.
The piston pump is divided into a direct-acting pump and a power pump by the main component movement mode. In a direct-acting pump, the main component motion is reciprocating; in a power pump (such as a cam-driven pump), the main components rotate.
Cam drives and submersible pumps are widely used.
For example, a cam-driven pump has a single cylinder and the operating element is actuated by a cam and returned to its original position by a spring. In these pumps, the liquid discharge is not uniform; however, their design is small. In a cam-driven pump, the cylinders are mounted radially and the shafts intersect at a common center. The shoe is used to reduce the contact pressure between the displacer and the cam. Cam-driven pumps are capable of generating high pressures; therefore, they are used for hydraulic actuation, liquid injection in hydraulic presses and fuel pumps in diesel engines.
The submersible pump is very small and is used for drilling.
Piston pump: basic components and parts
Piston pumps include one type of volume unit in which a displacer is used to push liquid from a static working chamber. The basic components of the piston pump are the working chamber and the displacer. For volumetric pumping equipment, the working chamber is an enclosed space that is alternately connected to the inlet and outlet of the pumping equipment. The displacer is an operating element that removes material from the working chamber of the device.
Piston pump: working principle
In a single-acting piston pump, the rod connects the displacer to the crank gear; as a result, the displacer reciprocates in the cylinder. When the piston moves to the right, a vacuum is created in the working chamber. As a result, the operating liquid is drawn into the chamber by the valve through the conduit. When the piston travels rearward (left), the discharge valve opens and the suction valve closes. As a result, the liquid is injected into the discharge pipe. In order to increase the efficiency of the piston pump, they are usually made into a double pump, a triple pump, and the like. A single crankshaft is used in these pumps to activate the piston.
Piston pump: advantages
The advantages of piston pumps compared to other types of pumping equipment are as follows:
Liquid discharge is not dependent on the head; therefore, these pumps are suitable for metering pumps;
Relatively high efficiency (for example, it is higher than the efficiency of the centrifugal unit);
The liquid delivered by the piston pump is not uniform and the size of these pumps is very large (eg, larger than the size of the centrifugal pump). Their designs are complex; however, they produce high lifts. Piston pumps are used for cleaning liquids because these pumps have valves. Mixtures in the working fluid can cause pump failure.
Piston Pumps: Industrial Applications
Piston pumps are mainly used in water supply systems, household equipment, the food industry, the chemical industry, and manufacturing materials deposition equipment. Some types of piston pumps, such as diaphragm units, are used as components of internal combustion engines for fuel delivery; in addition, they are used in the operation of mortars and other materials containing mixtures. Submersible pumps are widely used for work in drilling. A mud pump is used to move the mud solution.
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