Jets have fast flight speeds and long cruising range, w […]
Jets have fast flight speeds and long cruising range, which requires fuels with higher heating values and greater density. At the same time, the flying height of the jet aircraft is more than 10,000 meters. At this time, the high air temperature is as low as -55 ° C to 60 ° C, which requires the fuel to not solidify at this time. Therefore, jet motors use mainly petroleum hydrocarbon fuels, which are classified into three categories according to their boiling points: wide fraction (boiling range 60 ° C ~ 280 ° C), kerosene type (boiling range 150 ° C ~ 280 ° C), heavy fractionation (Boiling point range 190 ° C ~ 315 ° C). Aviation kerosene is usually used.
Aviation kerosene has suitable density, high calorific value, good combustion performance, rapid, stable, continuous and complete combustion, and small combustion area, little carbon deposit, and difficult to coke; low temperature fluidity, can meet cold and low temperature areas and high altitude flight Requirements for oil fluidity; good thermal stability and oxidation stability; high cleanliness and low mechanical corrosion. Aviation kerosene is suitable for use in gas turbine motors and ramjet motors for supersonic aircraft without low saturated vapor pressure and good thermal stability. In addition, because kerosene is not easy to evaporate and has a high ignition point, gas turbine motors are often fueled when starting, and a variety of additives are added to aviation fuel to improve certain performance of fuel.
Aviation kerosene adopts a one-pass partial conversion process. The cogel-type catalyst is used in the process. The amount of catalyst is much loaded, the molecular sieve content is small, the aromatics have strong saturation ability, and the oil has high density, high smoke point, high calorific value, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Low features.
In addition to aviation kerosene, countries are also studying synthetic hydrocarbon fuels and other high-energy fuels, but they have not yet been widely used.